Pokemon Go Meets Stand Your Ground

Among the myriad of stories pouring in about dangerous Pokemon Go game experiences happening in the world of AR (Augmented Reality), along comes news from Florida (of course) about a real-world “stand your ground” type of incident which fortunately was not deadly – but could have been.

According to a report from the Flagler County Sheriff’s Office, on Saturday morning (July 16) about 1:30 a.m., a man fired several shots at the car of two young men who were playing Pokemon Go outside his home in Palm Coast, Florida.

Pokemon GO screenshot
Pokemon GO screenshot

The 37-year-old man said he was awakened by a noise, looked outside his home, and saw a white car. He thought that two teenagers, 19 and 16-year-old, were burglars ransacking houses when he reportedly heard them ask each other “Did you get anything?”

The man told police that he stepped in front of the vehicle and ordered the teens not to move. He said the vehicle accelerated toward him, causing him to jump out of the way. He then fired a gun several times at the vehicle because he thought they were trying to run over him.

The teens reportedly later told police that before the shooting they heard someone ask, “Did you catch him?” and one of the teens said, “Yeah, did you?”

They heard the gunfire as they sped off. They didn’t call police or tell their parents because they weren’t injured and had not seen any damage to the car.

But in the light of day, when the vehicle was found to have a flat tire and several bullet holes, they realized how deadly the encounter could have been, and the mother of one of the teens then called police.

Due to Florida’s infamous stand your ground law, it’s unlikely the unidentified homeowner will be arrested or face any charges, but it is possible.

law enforcement officials everywhere advise citizens to call 911 immediately with as much information as possible when you suspect someone is trying to break into your home, and avoid leaving the protection of your home to confront suspects.

Here are additional tips from Flagler County Sheriff’s Department:

Pokemon Go players are urged to follow these safety guidelines

  • Use common sense, be alert at all times and stay aware of your surroundings. In law enforcement, we call this situational awareness.
  • Watch where you are going.
  • Do not drive or ride your bike, skateboard, or another device while interacting with the Pokemon Go app. You cannot do both safely at the same time.
  • Do not trespass, go onto private property or into any area you usually, would not if you weren’t playing Pokemon Go.
  • Understand that people can use your location to lure you to “PokeStops” so they can victimize you.
  • Take a friend with you.
  • If you are a minor, check with a parent before going anywhere and tell an adult or law enforcement officer immediately if anything happens.

Parents of Pokemon Go players

  • Talk to your kids about strangers and set limits on where your kids go.
  • Be aware of third-party software apps claiming to enhance the gaming experience. Unfortunately, many of these apps allow access to sensitive personal data.

Stand Your Ground Goes Wrong In Racist Gang Attack

A paradigm of just how badly stand your ground can go wrong is when a Black man brutally attacked by a group of White men is charged with murder, testifies that he didn’t intend to kill one, but did, and then a judge decides he is not immune from prosecution – because the self-defense was unintentional.

It happened in Georgia, and the story of Jesse Murray, as revealed in media and police reports, goes beyond blatant disregard for the stand your ground law he tried to use, after becoming the victim of a brutal racist attack.

It reportedly all begins at a sports bar in Clayton County, Georgia, where 33-year-old Murray met with his estranged wife, Traci, for a meal, to discuss their relationship and children. The couple had once been regular customers of the business and were known by employees there.

Jesse Murray

After their meal, the Murrays tried their hand at a game of pool while having a few drinks, as a party was taking place nearby. Nathan Adams, a White male who was allegedly drunk, along with a woman, stumbled into Traci, and Murray, who is Black, tried to stop them from falling.

Adams – who just happened to be an ex-cop – offered no apologies, but allegedly warned Murray not to touch him again, as Murray stood between Traci and Adams and told him to get away from his wife.

A drunken Adams reportedly told Murray, “You need to f*cking leave” as four other White men, apparently Adams’ friends, appeared to surround Murray, and Adams pushed him in the chest.

Murray said he walked away from the men, went outside to his car, grabbed his licensed handgun and headed back toward the entrance to go back inside to bring his wife Traci out. He put the gun in his pocket.

As he tried to go back into the bar, Adams’ group blocked the door. Murray told the men to let his wife come out of the bar, but they refused, and instead moved toward him into the parking lot.

Several men accused of attacking Murray reportedly claimed they were concerned Murray was going to get a gun, had made threatening statements, and had called the woman who was with Adams an offensive name.

WSB-TV reports that Murray testified, “I was scared. I was definitely, at that moment, I was in fear. I was scared,” He also said, “They just made trouble happen for no reason.”

Adams threw a punch at Murray and all four men jumped in, kicking punching, and tackling Murray to the ground, then choking him as Adams held him by the arm.

In chilling court testimony, Murray testified that, “As he [Adams] was pulling on me I just remember him grunting.” Murray said soon after that Adams appeared to reach for (or his hands got close to) the gun in Murray’s pocket.

“At that point, when I pulled back, that’s when my gun discharges.” Murray was then able to escape – as one of the men shot at him – and run to a nearby business, from where he called police.

When police arrived, Murray surrendered his weapon and tried to explain what happened, but was handcuffed by the responding officer. While Murray was cuffed, one of Adams’ friends allegedly ran up and punched Murray in the head.

Responding officers didn’t arrest the man who punched Murray, who was then placed into a patrol car, as a white officer (off-duty and out of uniform) – who was another of Adams’ friends – arrived on the scene, and shouted, “Do you know who we are? We’re going to fry your black ass!” reports rollingout.com.

Nathan Adams
Nathan Adams (screen grab WSB-TV)

Adams was pronounced dead at a hospital. Murray was transported to jail, where he was charged with first-degree murder and aggravated assault. No one else was charged with a crime that night.

After a stand your ground hearing in June, Clayton County Superior Court Judge Albert R. Collier denied stand your ground immunity for Murray, stating that Murray was not in fear for his life. If convicted, he now faces up to 15 years in prison.

Read Georgia’s Self-Defense Laws Here

The judge responded that it doesn’t appear to the court “that the other men in the vicinity were acting in such a way that would cause the defendant to reasonably believe that deadly force was necessary to prevent death or great bodily injury to himself or a third party.”

The Judge’s ruling also states that, “The court cannot reconcile the defendants asking for immunity under a self-defense statute, by stating that the use of deadly force was justified, and then also stating that the use of deadly force was unintentional.”

Murray’s defense attorney Mawuli Mel Davis plans to file a Motion to Reconsider.

A Stand Your Ground Case Taking Too Long To Go To Trial

Curtis Reeves, Jr. will probably never again be a free man. He will likely die behind bars – or perhaps while out of prison on house arrest – in a stand your ground case that’s taking a noticeably long time to go to trial.

On Jan. 13, 2014, Reeves, now 73-year-old, fatally shot 43-year-old Chad Oulson in a Pasco County, Florida movie theater, wounding Oulson’s wife in the process.

Reeves – a retired Tampa, Florida police captain and former SWAT leader – was charged with second-degree murder and aggravated assault. But he asserts that he fired in self-defense and is claiming immunity under Florida’s notorious stand your ground law.

SEE: A Theater Shooting You May Have Forgotten About

After six months in jail, Reeves posted $150,000 bail and was released in July 2014, with a requirement to wear an ankle bracelet monitor and remain under house arrest. He can only leave home for doctor visits, grocery shopping, or church.

If convicted, he faces a life sentence. But at his age, even pleading guilty to a lesser charge could mean that he will die behind bars, reports the Tampa Bay Times.

Defense Attorney Richard Escobar speaks with reporters after his client Curtis Reeves, Jr. (center) was released on bail in July, 2014 [photo credit: OCTAVIO JONES | Times]
Now, almost three years, dozens of court sessions, and multiple depositions after the fatal shooting, it may seem as if Reeves’ defense team is trying to keep him out of prison as long as they can.

“(This case) should have gone a long time ago,” Pinellas-Pasco Chief Assistant State Attorney Bruce Bartlett told the Tampa Bay Times. “Factually, it’s just not that complicated. It happened in a movie theater, in a matter of minutes, and it’s over and done with.” Bartlett said the stand your ground phase of a case like this is typically decided within 18 months or two years at most.

A stand your ground hearing was originally set by Circuit Court Judge Susan L. Barthle for January 25, 2016, and postponed to May 26,  then postponed again to June 29, 2016. Now, Judge Barthle has set a date of February 20, 2017.

RELATED: Stand Your Ground Hearing For Cop In Theater Shooting Postponed – Again

Reeves’ defense attorney Richard Escobar denies any deliberate stall tactics and attributes the delays to the complexity of the case and a multitude of some 170 witnesses.

Escobar is hopelessly optimistic about what seems to be a clear case of murder, and once said he thinks Reeves has a “pretty solid stand your ground case.” He told the Tampa Bay Times, “We believe that when we go to trial, Mr. Reeves will be acquitted of all charges.” Read the Tampa Bay Times story.

NOTE: This article was edited after it was originally posted to include the third paragraph.

 

New York Off-Duty Cop Kills Unarmed Man In July 4th Road Rage Incident

Details are still emerging in the July 4th fatal shooting of an unarmed convicted felon by an off-duty New York City police officer during a road rage incident shortly after midnight.

Reports are that, as the two men were at a red light, 37 year-old Delrawn Small, who was driving with his girlfriend, Zaquanna Albert, 35-years-old, and her two kids to a fireworks show, got out of his car and approached a car driven by off-duty Officer Wayne Isaacs, who had just finished working a shift, but was not in uniform.

A witness reported that Isaacs’ car had cut off Small’s car as they approached the traffic signal. When Small got to Isaacs’ car, he allegedly punched Isaacs twice in the face. Isaacs responded by firing a gun as many as three times, fatally shooting Smalls.

The New York Post reports that Small, a father of three, had been drinking at a barbecue earlier in the night, and has a criminal record with around two dozen arrests, which include armed robbery and drugs.

article-shot-0704
Delrawn Small (family photo)

Some reports say Isaacs did not exit his car, but one report quoted a witness, Lloyd Banks. a 43-years-old construction worker, as saying, “Delrawn and the cop’s car almost hit each other. And Delrawn got out of the car and the cop just jumped out and started screaming. He just shot (Small) right there on the street.”

Police have classified the case as a road rage incident, but have not released any available surveillance video, and have not stated whether or not the shooting was justified. Isaacs has been placed on administrative leave pending the outcome of an investigation by the state’s Attorney General’s office.

Small’s family is enraged, threatening to “hunt him [Isaacs] down”. His niece, Zoe Dempsey, 23-years-old told the New York Post, “We will seek our justice’’ — and get violent if necessary. “This is war, she said, “I’m from Brooklyn. This is our neighborhood.”

35F0D82B00000578-3673561-image-m-80_1467640136777
Delrawn Small

Dempsey said she and her friends “are hunting [Isaacs] down’’ if justice doesn’t prevail. “So if I’m going to find him, he’s going to get what he deserves . . . If this hits trial and I have to pull up with my homies and we beat his ass, then I’m with that, too,’’ she said.

Small’s family has also set up a GoFundMe page to raise funds for his funeral.

The city of New York recently settled a lawsuit involving a racially charged false arrest case with Isaacs as one of two officers accused, in which the plaintiff  was “punched, kicked and struck several times in the head and body,” and also called a “n—-r”.

10 Years Later, Remembering A 9-Year-Old Whose Killer Claimed Stand Your Ground

Sherdavia Jenkins, a 9-year-old girl playing outside her Miami home with her siblings didn’t deserve to die. Especially not the way she did – caught in the crossfire of gang warfare and felled by a bullet from an AK-47. Even more hurtful was the fact that the shooter had the audacity to invoke Florida’s stand your ground law.

Her death in 2006 horrified the community and solidified her name as a rallying cry against the gun violence that has plagued Miami for decades.

It would later be denied, but the insult of using stand your ground law as an excuse for accidentally taking the life of an innocent 9-year-old was an affront to the futility of having such a law – a law that wastes precious court time, and allows a defendant the luxury of a possible excuse.

In observance of July 1st, 2016 – the 10th anniversary of Sherdavia’s death – the Miami-Herald reports on reflections of her family, community, and the remorse of one of the gunmen, as her family is carrying on, preparing to send Sherdavia’s sister to college and wondering what their bright, beloved daughter might have accomplished had she lived. Read the full story at MiamiHerald.com

Stand Your Ground Hearing For Cop In Theater Shooting Postponed – Again

Prosecutors and attorneys for a retired Florida cop who killed a man during an argument over the man texting on a cell phone in a movie theater have agreed to postpone a stand your ground hearing – again, and again, and now again – until next year.

A hearing on an immunity claim of self-defense under stand your ground law was originally set by Circuit Court Judge Susan L. Barthle for January 25, 2016, and postponed to May 26,  then postponed again to June 29, 2016. This time, Judge Barthle has set a date of February 20, 2017.

SEE: A Theater Shooting You May Have Forgotten About

RELATED: A Stand Your Ground Case Taking Too Long To Go To Trial

Curtis Reeves photo credit: Pasco County Sheriffs Office)
Curtis Reeves (photo credit: Pasco County Sheriff’s Office)

Retired Tampa Police Captain Curtis Judson Reeves, 73-years-old, of Brooksville, is charged with second-degree battery and second degree murder in the shooting death of 43-year-old Chad Oulson and wounding Oulson’s wife, Nicole. The incident, which some people call the “popcorn shooting”, occurred inside a movie theater in Pasco County on January 13, 2014.

Theater surveillance cameras captured multiple images from different angles of the venue seating areas and lobby, with one scene that appears to show popcorn, then what appears to be a cellphone being thrown by Oulson just before Reeves fires the fatal shot.

A stand your ground hearing would determine whether or not Reeves is immune from prosecution. If he loses at the hearing the case would then go to trial. If his plea is successful, he will not have to stand trial.

Defense attorneys earlier this year filed a successful request to have public access to possibly dozens of court depositions restricted amid repeated delays in proceedings during an era of calls for an end to gun violence and public scrutiny on law enforcement killings.

RELATED: Attorneys In Stand Your Ground “Popcorn Shooting” Want To Stop Access To Court Records (Updated)

 

Stand Your Ground Top Tweet: In Florida, It’s Glock Time All The Time

Updated: July 14, 2016

Time for another treat with a top tweet about stand your ground laws. It’s summertime and Florida recently began a “#SummerStartsNow Visit Florida” tourism campaign.

Unfortunately, the murder of singer Christina Grimmie and massacre at the Pulse nightclub have occurred two weeks after this tweet was posted. We all truly grieve with Orlando. Yet incidents like these may only serve to help the state promote it’s NRA-led gun agenda.

So, why not celebrate the season in a place where guns are not so prevalent and promiscuous? What better time to give California oranges and juice a try, or skip the Southeast corner of the U.S. to visit Hawaii, which has one of the lowest rates of gun ownership (7%) and gun deaths (7 in 2010).

In case you missed it, or don’t use twitter, here’s a tweet by the Movement to Change or repeal Stand Your Ground Laws that got the most attention over the past few weeks to earn a spot on the top tweet list.

Shannon Watts, founder of Moms Demand Action, also tweeted about the Gunshine state’s tourism campaign. Shout out and thanks to whoever created the graphic:

Man Gets New Trial In Murder Of Neighbor On Basketball Court

In November 2012, Trevor Dooley, now 75-years-old, was found guilty of manslaughter and sentenced to 8 years in prison for the September, 2010 murder of a neighbor, 41-years-old David James, on a basketball court – as James’ 8-year-old daughter watched. Dooley was convicted in 2013, and served three years and three months of his sentence in prison.

Dooley’s first appeal was denied, but the Tampa Bay Times reports a second appeal has been granted because of an ineffective appellate lawyer and “erroneous” wording in the jury instructions on the justifiable use of deadly force. In Florida, that’s known as the “stand your ground” law.

Xena is following this case and posted this update on her website at We Hold These Truths To Be Self-Evident

by Xena

(l) Trevor Dooley booking photo (credit: Florida Dept of Corrections); (r)David James (family photo)
(l) Trevor Dooley booking photo (credit: Florida Dept of Corrections); (r)David James (family photo)

When I heard that Trayvon Martin was killed, and that his killer was claiming Florida’s stand your ground defense, that law piqued my interest.  I had not heard of stand your ground and wanted to know of other cases in Florida where the defendant claimed that defense.

Among the cases I found was that of Trevor Dooley.  On January 23, 2013, I wrote an article on the significance of the Dooley decision.  It is a Florida case where the defendant claimed self-defense….

Read full story at We Hold These Truths To Be Self-Evident

 

 

Why Stand Your Ground Laws Won’t Stop A Mass Shooting

After each mass shooting in America, a voice is heard somewhere in the wilderness of the gun control debate preaching the myth that “nothing stops a bad guy but a good guy with a gun.” This worn-out statement has been used in support of stand your ground laws, but it’s unlikely stand your ground laws would stop a mass shooting.

The good guy myth is repeated by the gun lobby – like a sales pitch for a reliable car – almost every time there’s a high-profile murder of innocent people, or a vigilante kills a perp, and it’s simply not true.

In the wake of the worst mass shooting in U.S. history, at the Pulse night club in Orlando, we heard it again. Presumptive Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump, an NRA supporter, is likely to have said it again by the time you read this.

Stand your ground is dangerous

Some gun owners may argue that engaging a threat is the best solution. In Florida – the birthplace of “stand your ground” laws – it’s highly possible that several patrons or employees of the night club were armed, and reports are that an armed security guard fired back at the gunman during the frenzy. It’s unclear if the club had a system to check for weapons at the entrance.

Scene of Pulse nightclub shooting
Scene of Pulse nightclub shooting (photo credit: Orlando Police Dept.)

Chances are, 29-year-old Omar Mateen, like any other mass shooter, probably didn’t bother to make a normal entrance on his hours-long rampage, as he killed 49 people and wounded 53 others. it was only when police fired on him that the shooting ended.

Stand your ground law relieves a person of a duty to retreat. That means there is no obligation to try and escape any danger or call police in the face of a threat. It allows for the use of deadly force to meet deadly force.

SEE: About Stand Your Ground Law

It means the law may be on the good guy’s side even if he’s not the intended target of a gunman. There have been several cases where the “good guy” saved the day. A Good Samaritan can also be killed while trying to come to the rescue of others, as what happened outside a Dallas, Texas store last month.

No warning, lots of firepower

But without any warning or firepower to match, who can stand their ground against an AR-15 assault rifle firing 45 rounds a minute – a weapon designed for war – wielded by a crazed gunman intent on carnage?

Mass shootings in U.S.
Mass shootings in U.S. (graphic credit: L.A. Times)

Some research suggests that a “good guy with a gun” may not even be aware of a threat until it’s too late. In a mass shooting, there is usually no warning, in which case the good guy role is dangerously ineffective at least.

At it’s deadliest worst, there is also an increased chance during an active shooter situation that any number of innocent people may be hurt or killed by “friendly fire” from an untrained civilian – who happens to be a “good guy with a gun”. There could also be criminal or civil legal repercussions.

To successfully meet force with force, there must be some type of warning and an equal or better effective and accurate amount of force used to stop a bad guy with an AR-15. In almost every mass shooting of recent years (including the Newtown school shooting, the movie theater shooting in Aurora, and the San Bernardino  shooting) it was the shooter’s weapon of choice.

Yet the NRA, the AR-15’s most avid supporter, has opposed any efforts to keep assault weapons out of the hands of bloodthirsty maniacs. In the immediate aftermath of the worst mass shooting in our memory, the organization was unusually quiet and offered no expressions of sympathy for the victims.

Manufacturers of these high-powered weapons of war are facing lawsuits from some families. Families of Sandy Hook victims have filed lawsuits against gun manufacturers they say made a weapon that shouldn’t be sold to civilians. In response to the Orlando shooting, presumptive Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton said “It reminds us once more that weapons of war have no place on our streets.”

There should be state and federal bans on assault-type weapons designed more for war than for hunting, such as was in effect from 1994 to 2004. It’s estimated that there are millions of these weapons in circulation. Efforts to reinstitute the ban have been underway but encounter resistance from the gun lobby.

Only lawmakers can help

Unfortunately, it appears that mass shootings do little to change state gun laws, even when we say enough is enough. Many politicians only use phrases like “thoughts and prayers” after a mass shooting, when action is what’s needed.

It’s up to lawmakers in each state who recklessly feed into NRA rhetoric and NRA money to act now – with urgency – and address the epidemic of gun violence by enacting gun laws for safety that may protect us. Anything less will continue to diminish our pursuit of happiness.

Having a stand your ground law can’t help stop a mass shooting, but sensible gun laws can help. We must hold state lawmakers responsible if they want our votes. We must demand that they take action to make America SAFE again.

Vietnam Vet Kills Young Man Who “Verbally Threatened” Him

Gun empowerment continues to give others an excuse to use gun violence. A 69-year-old Indiana man was charged with murder after he shot and killed a 27-year-old man who he said “verbally threatened” him on a downtown South Bend, Indiana street.

Police say Michael Young, of Mishawaka, Indiana, who is white, fatally shot Markest Flowers, an African-American, in the face about 10:30 p.m. on May 31, after the younger man allegedly uttered some threatening words to him during an altercation. Police have not said whether or not the incident was racially motivated.

Michael Young
Michael Young booking photo

It’s unclear what was said, but witnesses reported that Flowers, wearing a backpack, was walking back and forth holding a plastic cup as Young followed, when Young, a small man who stands at 5′ 7″ and weighs 150 pounds, grabbed Flowers by the backpack, spun him around, then without hesitation fired a shot point-blank into Flowers’ skull.

Young reportedly told police he was surprised when the gun went off but said he had experience firing the weapon, and admitted Flowers had not displayed a weapon or tried to physically attack him, but had “verbally threatened” him.

At a preliminary hearing on June 2nd, Young, who appeared without legal counsel, told a judge he is a Vietnam veteran who suffers from PTSD, and said he plans to hire a private attorney. He entered a plea of not guilty. No bond information was available. Young is due back in court June 16. It’s unclear if he will pursue a claim of self-defense.

Lawyers Seek New Trial For Michael Dunn In Jordan Davis Murder

After receiving a fourth extension of time to file initial appeal briefs, attorneys for Michael Dunn finally did so, and asked a panel of three judges at Florida’s 1st District Court of Appeals on June 7 to throw out his conviction in the death of 17-year-old Jordan Davis.

Dunn fatally shot the teenager at a Jacksonville gas station on November, 23, 2012 after a confrontation over loud music coming from a vehicle Davis was sitting in with three friends.

Michael Dunn
Michael Dunn (photo credit: Bruce Lipsky, Florida Times-Union)

Dunn was originally convicted on February 15, 2014 of the attempted murders of Davis’ friends, but a jury deadlocked on whether Dunn was guilty of Davis’ murder. A new jury convicted Dunn of first-degree murder on October 1, 2014.

Dunn is serving a life sentence (with no chance of parole) for the shootings at an undisclosed Florida prison. He was not present at the appeal hearing. It could be weeks or even months before the appeals court issues a ruling. Read the full story at jacksonville.com

 

Mom Who Killed Daughter Holding Baby Is Sentenced

In the final chapter to a heartbreaking story, a Florida mother was sentenced on yesterday (June 6) to serve 13 years in jail for fatally shooting her daughter a few days before Thanksgiving in 2013.

Adele Bing, 54, of Winter Haven, Florida, had been charged with second degree murder, shooting a deadly weapon, domestic violence with aggravated battery, and child neglect without great bodily harm. She entered a plea of guilty on May 25 to the lesser charge of manslaughter with a deadly weapon for the death of her daughter, 25-year-old Ruby Bing, and to aggravated battery (without firearm) on her boyfriend.

SEE: Mother Shoots Through Door, Kills Daughter Holding Baby

Adele Bing will receive credit for 270 days already served, and be on probation for 10 years after she is released.

Adele Bing
Adele Bing (Polk County Fla. Police booking photo)

On November 25th, 2013 Adele Bing had a fight with her boyfriend, during which she hit him in the head. Bing told police he left, telling her he’d be back to kill her. He instead went to a hospital for treatment of his injury.

While he was at the hospital, Adele Bing claimed she heard a banging and kicking at her apartment door, and, thinking it was the boyfriend, went to the door holding a baseball bat in one hand and a .22 caliber pistol in the other. At the door was her daughter, 25-year-old Ruby, who was holding Adele’s 4-month-old grandchild.

Ruby Bing (facebook photo)
Ruby Bing (facebook photo)

Bing told police that as she opened the door, the gun accidentally went off, hitting Ruby with a single shot to the chest. She died at the scene. Luckily, the baby wasn’t hurt. Police arrived to find Adele Bing cradling Ruby’s body, begging her to wake up.

She reportedly made a statement to police that it was a “f–up accident” and stated, “How can I look my grandkids in their face and say I killed their mother? Y’all can lock me away for good.”

This and other recent incidents underscore the importance of gun safety and dangers of approaching a door in supposed “fear” while holding a gun, and of banging on a door at night, heightening the likelihood that a deadly encounter or a self-defense incident may occur.